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薄型钢结构防火涂料耐高温涂料的施工工艺


ZAIBOXINGGANGJIEGOUSHUIXINGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOPEIFANGSHEJIYANJIUZHONG,FANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAODESHIGONGGONGYIYANJIUYEHENZHONGYAO,SHIGONGGONGYITIAOJIANDUITULIAODESHIYONGXINGNENGHEZHUANGSHIXINGYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。GANGJIEGOUFANGHUOTULIAOYINGYOUJINGGUOPEIXUNHEGEQUDEZIZHIDEZHUANYESHIGONGDUIJINXINGSHIGONG,SHIGONGZHONGDEANQUANJISHUHELAODONGBAOHUDENGYAOQIU,YINGANGUOJIAXIANXINGYOUGUANGUIDINGZHIXING;SHIGONGXIANCHANGZHILIANGGUANLIYINGYOUXIANGYINGDESHIGONGJISHUBIAOZHUN、ZHILIANGGUANLITIXI、ZHILIANGKONGZHIJIJIANYANZHIDU、SHIGONGFANGANDENGJISHUWENJIAN。FANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAODESHIGONGSHISHITULIAOZAIBEIBAOHUWUJIANBIAOMIANXINGCHENGSUOXUTUMODEGUOCHENG,FANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAODUIBEIBAOHUJICAIBIAOMIANDEZHUANGSHI、BAOHUYIJIGONGNENGXINGZUOYONGSHIYIQIZAIWUJIANBIAOMIANSUOXINGCHENGDETUMOLAITIXIAN。BOXINGGANGJIEGOUSHUIXINGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAODESHIGONGGONGYIYANJIUBAOKUO3FANGMIANNEIRONG:BEIBAOHUJICAIGANGJIEGOUBIAOMIANCHULIFANGFAYANJIU、SHIGONGHUANJINGDUITUZHUANGXIAOGUOYINGXIANGDEYANJIUHESHIGONGGONGYIYANJIU。

1.GANGJIEGOUBIAOMIANCHULIFANGFAYANJIU

BEIBAOHUGANGJICAIDEBIAOMIANCHULI,SHIBOXINGGANGJIEGOUSHUIXINGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOSHIGONGDEJICHUGONGXU。QIMUDESHIWEITUMOYUBEIBAOHUGANGJICAIBIAOMIANDEFUZHECHUANGZAOYIGELIANGHAODETIAOJIAN,TONGSHIHAINENGTIGAOHEGAISHANTUMOXINGNENG。GANGJIEGOUBIAOMIANCHULISHIZHENGGETUZHUANGGONGYIQUDELIANGHAOXIAOGUODEYIGEGUANJIANHUANJIE。BIAOMIANCHULIDEMUDE:DIYI,QINGCHUBEITUWUJIANBIAOMIANDEGEZHONGWUGOU,SHITUCENGYUBEITUGANGJICAIBIAOMIANHENHAODIFUZHE,YIBAOZHENGTUCENGJUYOUYOULIANGDEXINGNENG。WUGOUFENWEIWUJIHEYOUJIWUGOULIANGLEI,TAMENDECUNZAIBUJINYINGXIANGTUCENGWAIGUAN,YANZHONGDEHUISHITUMOCHENGPIANTUOLUO;DIER,XIUZHENGBEIBAOHUWUJIANBIAOMIAN,CHUQUCUNZAIDEQUEXIAN,TIGONGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOSHIGONGSHIXUYAODEBIAOMIANCUCAODU,SHITUSHUASHIYOULIANGHAODEFUZHEJICHU。SHIJIANBIAOMING:BEITUWUJIANBIAOMIANHESHIDECUCAODUWEI4~6JI;DISAN,ZHENDUIBEIBAOHUGANGJICAIDEBUTONGCAIZHICAIYONGBUTONGDECHULIFANGFA,YITIGAOTUCENGDEFUZHELIHEFANGFUSHINENGLI。BIAOMIANCHULIDEFANGFADUOZHONGDUOYANG,YINGYIJUBEITUGANGJICAIBIAOMIANJIAGONGHOUDEQINGJIEHEGUANGJIECHENGDU,WUGOUDEZHONGLEIHETEXINGYIJIWURANCHENGDUDENGLAIXUANZE。SHUYUBIAOMIANJINGHUACHULIDEYOUCHUYOU、CHUXIU、CHUJIUQI;SHUYUHUAXUECHULIDEYOULINHUA、DUNHUACHULI。

1.1CHUYOU

QUCHUJINSHUGONGJIANBIAOMIANDEYOUWU,KEZENGQIANGGEZHONGTULIAODEFUZHELI。GENJUYOUWUQINGKUANG,XUANYONGCHENGBENDI、RONGJIELIQIANG、DUXINGXIAOHEBUYIRANDERONGJI。CHANGYONGDERONGJIYOU200#SHIYOURONGJIYOU、SONGJIEYOU、SANLVYIXI、SILVYIXI、SILVHUATAN、ERLVJIAWAN、SANLVYIWAN、SANFUSANLVYIWANDENG。

1.2CHUXIU

CHEDIQINGCHUGANGCAIBIAOMIANDEXIUGOU,YIYANZHANGTUMODESHIYONGSHOUMING,BUTONGDEGANGTIEQIJIANBIAOMIANYOUBUTONGDECHUXIUBIAOZHUN。CHUXIUFANGFAZHUYAOYOU:

(1)SHOUGONGDAMOCHUXIU,SHIZUIJIANDAN、GULAODECHUXIUFANGFA。TANENGCHUQUSONGDONG、QIAOQIDEYANGHUAPI,SHUSONGXIUSHIJIQITAWUWU。

(2)JIXIECHUXIU,JIEZHUYUJIXIELIDECHONGJIYUMOCAZUOYONG,QINGCHUGANGCAIBIAOMIANDEYANGHUAPI、XIUCENG、JIUQICENGJIHANZHADENG。QITEDIANSHICAOZUOJIANBIAN,XIAOLVBISHOUGONGCHUXIUYOUSUOTIGAO。CHANGYONGDECHUXIUSHEBEIYOU:GANGBANCHUXIUJI,GANGCAIZAIYIDUIKUAISUZHUANDONGDEJINSHUSIGUNTONGJIANTONGGUO,KAOSISHUAYUGANGCAIBIAOMIANDEKUAISUMOCA,CHUQUGANGCAIBIAOMIANDEXIUSHICENG;SHOUTISHIGANGBANCHUXIUJI,YOUDIANDONGJITONGGUORUANZHOUDAIDONGGANGSILUNYUGANGCAIBIAOMIANMOCAERCHUXIU;GUNTONGCHUXIUJI,KAOGUNTONGZHUANDONGSHIMOLIAOTONGGANGCAIBIAOMIANXIANGHUCHONGJI、MOCAERCHUXIU。CIWAI,PENSHACHUXIUYESHIYIZHONGZHONGYAODECHUXIUFANGSHI。

(3)HUAXUECHUXIU,TONGCHANGCHENGWEISUANXI,SHIYISUANRONGYECUSHIGANGCAIBIAOMIANXIUCENGFASHENGHUAXUEBIANHUABINGRONGJIEZAISUANYEZHONG,ERDADAOCHUXIUMUDE。CHANGYONGJINZI、PENSHE、TUFU3ZHONGCHULIFANGSHI。

(4)CHUXIUJICHUXIU(CHANGYONGLUOHECHUXIUJI),JIKEZAISUANXINGTIAOJIANXIAJINXING,YEKEZAIJIANXINGTIAOJIANXIAJINXING,QIANZHEHAISHIHEYUCHUYOU、LINHUADENGZONGHEBIAOMIANCHULI。

1.3BIAOMIANCHULIDUITUCENGXINGNENGDEYINGXIANG

GANGJICAIDEBIAOMIANCHULIDUITUCENGFUZHELIYOUHENDAYINGXIANG。TUFUSHUIXINGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOQIAN,GANGJICAIBIAOMIANYINGDADAOWUXIU、WUYOU、GANZAOHEYOUHESHIDECUCAODU,YIBIANTIGAOTUCENGDEFUZHELI。XIANYONGPENSHECHUXIUJIDUIGANGJICAIBIAOMIANCHUYOU、CHUXIUHOU,ZAICAIYONGJIXIEDAMOHEHUAXUEXIYECHULILIANGZHONGBUTONGDEFANGFADUIGANGJICAIBIAOMIANJINXINGCHULI,SUODETUCENGXINGNENGRUBIAO1SUOSHI。

表1表面处理对薄型钢结构防火涂料、耐高温涂料涂层性能的影响

表1表面处理对薄型钢结构防火涂料、耐高温涂料涂层性能的影响
 
注:硬度按GB6739—86用QHQ—A型硬度仪测定。

 

由表1可见:钢基材经机械打磨后,所得涂层的附着力、初期干燥抗裂性等性能比化学洗液处理方法要好。这是由于钢基材经机械打磨后增大了基材的粗糙度,使防火涂层牢牢地镶嵌在钢基材表面。
2.施工环境对涂装效果的影响

SHIGONGHUANJINGDUIFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOTUZHUANGXIAOGUOYOUXIANGDANGDADEYINGXIANG。YIBANYAOQIUSHIGONGCHANGSUOHUANJINGMINGLIANG、BUSHOURIGUANGZHISHAI、WENDUHESHIDUHESHI、KONGQIQINGJIE、FENGSUSHIYI、FANGHUOTIAOJIANHAO。SHIGONGCHANGSUOCHUYINGJUBEIYIDINGLIANGDUHUOZHAOMINGTIAOJIANWAI,HAIYAOQIUBIMIANRIGUANGZHISHAI,ZAILIERIXIASHIGONGHENYIZAOCHENGTUMOQUEXIAN。DAQIDEWENSHIDUYUTULIAOSHIGONGHEGANZAOXINGNENGGUANXIHENDA。SHIYANBIAOMING:ZAIGAOWEN、GAOSHIQINGKUANGXIA,FANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOZHONGDEYIXIEZUFENHUIMANMANFASHENGHUAXUEFANYINGERZAOCHENGTUMOBIANCUIERKAILIETUOLUO。YIBANWENDUZAI5℃YIXIAHUOGAOYU50℃,XIANGDUISHIDUZAI85%YISHANGSHI,SHIGONGXIAOGUODOUBUTAILIXIANG。SHIYIDESHIGONGQIHOUTIAOJIANWEI:ZAISHIGONGGUOCHENGHESHIGONGZHIHOU,TUMOGANZAOGUHUAZHIQIAN,HUANJINGWENDUYIZAI5~50℃,XIANGDUISHIDUBUDAYU90%,KONGQIYINGLIUTONG。RUOWENDUGUODIHUOGUOGAO,FENGSUZAI5m/s(4JI)YISHANGSHI,DOUBULIYUFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOSHIGONG。BUNENGZAIHUWAILUTIANSHIGONG,GANGGOUJIANBIAOMIANHUOFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOBIAOMIANYOUJIELUSHIBUNENGSHIGONG;SHIGONGHAODETUMOWEIWANQUANGUHUAQIANBUNENGSHOUDAOYULIN、WUSHUIDEYINGXIANGHEBIAOMIANJIELU;MEICITUSHUAHOUDUBUNENGTAIHOU,SHANGDAOTUMOWEIGANJIUJINXINGXIAYICISHIGONGDENGDOUKEZAOCHENGTUCENGKONGGU、KAILIE。KONGQIZHONGDECHENAIDUITUZHUANGXIAOGUOYINGXIANGTEBIEDA,BIXUCAIQUFANGCHENCUOSHI,BUTONGTUCENGYAOQIUBUTONGDEFANGCHENBIAOZHUN。TONGFENGXIAOGUOJIYINGXIANGTUCENGZHILIANG,YOUYINGXIANGSHIGONGCHANGSUODEANQUANWEISHENG。

3.SHIGONGGONGYIYANJIU

SHIGONGGONGYIBAOKUOGONGYILIUCHENG、GONGYITIAOJIANHECANSHU、SHIGONGFANGFAHESHIYONGSHEBEIDENG。BUTONGDEBEITUGANGJIANHETULIAOPINZHONG,DUIYINGBUTONGDESHIGONGGONGYI。

3.1SHUATUFA

TASHISHIYONGZUIZAO、ZUIJIANDANDEYIZHONGTUZHUANGFANGFA,SHIYONGYUTUSHUARENHEXINGZHUANGDEWUJIAN,JUEDADUOSHUFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOKEYIYONGCIZHONGFANGFASHIGONG。SHUATUFATUSHUAHENRONGYISHENTOUJINSHUBIAOMIANDEXIKONG,KEZENGQIANGTULIAODUIJINSHUBIAOMIANDEFUZHELI。QUEDIANSHISHENGCHANXIAOLVDI、LAODONGQIANGDUDA,YOUSHITUCENGBIAOMIANLIUYOUSHUAHEN,YINGXIANGZHUANGSHIXING。

3.2GUNTONGSHUATUFA

GUNTONGSHIYIGEZHIJINGBUDADEKONGXINYUANZHU,BIAOMIANZHANYOUHECHENGXIANWEIZHICHENGDEZHANGRONGMAO,YUANZHULIANGDUANZHUANGYOULIANGGEDIANQUAN,ZHONGXINDAIKONG,WANQUDESHOUBINGJIYOUZHEIGEKONGZHONGTONGGUO。SHIGONGSHIXIANJIANGGUNZIJINRUQIZHONGJINRUN,RANHOUYONGLIGUNTUDAOSUOXUDEBIAOMIANSHANG。XIANZAICAIYONGKONGYAJIYASONGTULIAODEGUNTUZHUANGZHI。

3.3GUATUMOTUFA

SHIYONGJINSHUHUOFEIJINSHUGUADAO,RUYINGJIAOPIPIAN、BOLIGANGGUADAO、NIUJIAOGUADAODENGSHOUGONGMOTUGEZHONGHOUJIANGXINGFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOHENIZI。

3.4PENTUFA

CAIYONGYASUOKONGQIJIPENQIANG,SHITULIAOWUHUADESHIGONGFANGFA。QITEDIANSHIPENTUHOUTUMOJUNYUN,SHENGCHANXIAOLVGAO。QUEDIANSHIYOUYIBUFENTULIAOBEIHUIFASUNHAO,TONGSHIYOUYURONGJIDALIANGHUIFA,YINGXIANGCAOZUOZHESHENTIJIANKANG。PENTUFABAOKUOKONGQIPENTUFA、WUKONGQIPENTUFA、REPENTUFA、SHUANGKOUPENQIANGPENTUFA、JINGDIANPENTUFA、ZIDONGPENTUFADENG。FANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAOYIBANCAIYONGKONGQIPENTUFA。KONGQIPENTUDEGUANJIANSHEBEISHIPENQIANG。YIJUTULIAOGONGJIFANGSHI,PENQIANGTONGCHANGFENWEIZHONGLISHI、XIYINSHIHEYASONGSHI3ZHONG,YOUANPENTUNENGLIFENWEIXIAOXINGHEDAXINGLIANGLEI。XIAOXINGPENQIANGDUOWEIZHONGLISHIHUOXIYINSHI,QIPENZUIKOUJINGYUE0.5~1.8mm;DAXINGPENQIANGZEWEIYASONGSHI,YEYOUXIYINSHI,PENZUIKOUJINGDUOWEI1~10mm。PENZUIKOUJINGDEDAXIAOJUEDINGTULIAODEPENCHULIANGHEPENSHETULIAOSHUDEFUMIANKUANDU。TULIAONIANDUGAO,XUYAOGONGZUOYALIDA,YINGXUANDAKOUJINGPENZUI;TULIAONIANDUDI,XUYAOGONGZUOYALIXIAO,KEXUANXIAOKOUJINGPENZUI。KONGQIPENTUDEGONGZUOYALIYIBANWEI0.3~0.6MPa。WEIHUODEGUANGHUAPINGZHENGDETUCENG,PENTUSHIYINGZHUYIYIXIAJIGEWENTI。DIYI,SHIGONGQIAN,SHOUXIANYINGJIANGTULIAODIAOZHISHIDANGDENIANDU,GENJUTULIAODEZHONGLEI、KONGQIYALI、PENZUIDEDAXIAOYIJIWUMIANDEXUYAOLIANGLAIQUEDING。DIER,GONGJIPENQIANGDEKONGQIYALIYIBANWEI0.3~0.6MPa。DISAN,PENZUIYUWUMIANDEJULI,YI200~300mmWEIYI。DISI,PENCHUTULIAOLIUDEFANGXIANGYINGJINLIANGCHUIZHIYUWUTIBIAOMIAN。DIWU,WEILEHUODEJUNYUNDETUCENG,CAOZUOSHIMEIYIPENTUTIAODAIDEBIANYUANYINGDANGZHONGDIEZAIQIANYIYIPENHAODETIAODAIBIANYUANSHANG(YIZHONGDIE1/3WEIYI)。PENQIANGDEYIDONGSUDUYINGBAOCHIJUNYUNYIZHI,BUKESHIKUAISHIMAN。

3.5SHUIXINGBOXINGGANGJIEGOUFANGHUOTULIAO、NAIGAOWENTULIAODESHIGONGGONGYI

由于水性薄型钢结构防火涂料、耐高温涂料的粒度较大、黏度较稠,因而不太适宜采用刷涂法和滚筒刷涂法,而选用喷涂、抹涂和刮涂相结合的施工工艺。薄涂型钢结构防火涂料、耐高温涂料为水性涂料,直接涂刷在钢基材表面易生锈。因此施工前首先应将钢基材表面的油污、杂质、锈迹、锈斑彻底除掉,然后先刷一道防锈底漆,目的是防止钢结构生锈,以延长使用寿命,另外可使钢结构表面与涂层之间具有良好的结合力,提高整个涂层的保护性能。涂防锈底漆紧接着施工前表面处理进行,两工序之间的间隔应尽可能缩短。正确地选择防锈底漆品种及其涂装工艺,就能起到提高涂层性能、延长涂层寿命的作用。对防锈底漆的性能要求:应与钢结构底材具有很好的附着力;本身有较好的机械强度;对底材具有良好的防腐蚀保护性能和不产生其他副作用;能为防火涂层提供良好的基础,不含能渗入上层涂膜引起弊病的组分;具有良好的涂装性、干燥性和打磨性,这点在大批量流水线生产中至关重要。薄涂型钢结构防火涂料、耐高温涂料固体含量较大,较易沉淀,使用前应充分搅匀。双组分防火涂料、耐高温涂料,要根据产品说明书上规定的比例在现场进行调配,并充分搅匀;单组分涂料也应充分搅拌。搅拌好的涂料如太稠,可加适量自来水稀释到便于施工的黏度,喷涂时以不发生流淌和下坠现象为宜。不需喷涂的设备、管道、墙面和门窗,应遮蔽保护。防火涂料、耐高温涂料一般较粗糙,宜采用重力式或喷斗式喷枪,喷嘴口径φ4~6mm,空气压力0.4~0.6MPa。一般每次喷涂厚度为3mm左右,每隔24h喷涂1次,达到所需厚度为止。必须在上一道涂料干燥后,再喷涂下一道涂料,喷涂时应确保涂层均匀平整。操作者要携带涂层测厚仪随时检测涂层厚度,并确保喷涂达到设计规定的厚度。要求涂层表面平整光滑时,应对最后一道涂层作抹平处理,以保证外表面平整。局部修补和小面积施工,可用刷涂、喷涂或辊涂法。涂层若无装饰要求,可不涂面层;若有装饰要求,可喷涂装饰面层涂料1~2道,约2mm厚。

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